Methods of transport
Trucks: flexible, on-time, low loss and damage, tracing, accuracy and wide geographical coverage. Weather and traffic conditions can delay shipments still heavy price competition.
Rail: inexpensive for carload lots. Requires more packing material or must allow for rough handling, somewhat slow however freight forwarders, piggyback truck, and double stack containers offer cost savings for users.
Sea transportation: ideal for heavy, low-value non-perishables but have high fixed costs weather can be a problem. Containerisation and improved ports allow for expansion in new products and markets.
Air: high costs, suitable for high value or urgent or perishable items:
- weight and locations limited
- saves inventory holding costs
- important in international trade.
Post: low costs, only suitable for nonperishable, non-fragile items:
- weight limited
- important in international documents trade.